VERSE QUR’AN AND HADITH
OBLIGATIONS OF SCIENCE DEMANDS
Humans are creatures of Allah is best in this earth . Human beings are endowed with the potential for homo sapiens to think , because thinking he will get inspired to do the creations that can distinguish between good and bad , between beneficial and harmful in his life so he can help each other even among each other da can foster an environment where he lives and can benefit him.
Journey of human life is not just limited to the life of this world . But after that life will still be undertaken by humans , which is eternal life in the hereafter . From here can be seen that the purpose of human life is not only limited to the purpose of life in the world but the goal of eternal life in the hereafter as well .
Life in the perspective of the Islamic world is a field for the life hereafter . Charitable goodness and badness in the world will always be associated with life in the hereafter . Thus Islam has never known life dichotomy between the world and the Hereafter , that is how they have a point of contact so that what the people of the world will be accounted for in the hereafter .
To get a life in the world and in the Hereafter that required a balance of science ( science or way ) . Because the journey of life pursued by humans will not mean anything ( vain ) without the science .
When men meet its obligations as a servant of God ( Allah ) by performing various rituals of worship then there is necessary to the study of how worship is good and right (according to law ) . Then , when people interact with other human beings , science will play a very important matter . Where we will know the procedures well established relationships with over science .
Therefore, Islam strongly encourages the believers to always seek knowledge even for those who actively seek knowledge Allah give him the guarantee , such as elevated by one rank , eased her way to heaven and get protection for seeking knowledge .
From here , we know how important and beneficial a science , so that Islam requires all his people to seek knowledge . On this occasion , as our speakers will discuss about the verses and hadith that describes the obligations demanded by the science and education kontekstualisasinya .
II. Tafsir Qs . At tawbah Verse 122 .
Not fitting for it to go all the believers ( to war ) . Why not get away from each faction among them some people to deepen their knowledge of religion and to warn their people when they have been returned to him , so that they can keep him.
B. Asbabun Nuzul
Ibn Abu Hatim summon a hadith by Ikrimah who told , that when lowered his word the following, namely , ” If you do not go forth , He will punish you with a grievous penalty . ” ( At- Tawbah Q.S. 39 ) . Is exactly at that time there were people who did not go to war , they are in the Bedouin area ( inland ) because I was busy teaching religion to his people .
So hypocrites commented , ” It’s still there were people who left in the hinterlands , then woe to the inland people . ” Then come down to his word stating , “There is fitting for those who believer that everything went ( to war ) . ” ( At- Tawbah Q.S. 122 ) . Ibn Abu Hatim also summon another hadith by Abdullah bin Ubaid bin Umair who narrates, that given the desire of the believers greatly to the issue of jihad , it is mentioned that when the Messenger of Allah . send combat troops , then they all left . And they left the Prophet . Medina along with weak ones . Then the word of Allah came down . the uppermost earlier ( ie surah At – Tawbah verse 122 ).
Ibn Abbas said about this verse . “It is fitting for those who believer that everything went to war and left Rasululloh alone ” .
Qatadah said , ” When Allah sent troops Rasululloh then let most go to war , while others stayed with the Holy Rasululloh to learn and deepen their knowledge of religion , and with the knowledge that they acquire it , let them go back to his people to warn them .
Adh – Dhahhak said , ” If Allah invites Rasululloh jihad ( total war ) then it should not stay behind unless they are berudzur . But if Rasululloh called a sariyah ( limited war ) , then let a party go kemedan a class war and stay with Rasululloh to deepen the knowledge of religion , for he taught to his people when returning .
According to Ali bin Abi Talhah , that the opinions Inbu Abbas about this verse , that verse is not about jihad , but on one occasion, when Rasululloh pray Allah cursed Mudar tribe , place them so that there was a drought forced them to flee in droves and stay in Medina . Their arrival is a massive disaster and it is bringing hardship Rasululloh friends and the people of Medina itself , then diturunkanlah by this verse Allah tells Rasululloh that they were not the ones they dikembalikanlah mukmin.maka by Rasululloh to their homes and to comrades – tribesman they were warned not to do the same again.
D. Education in QS . At- Tawbah 122
The Qur’an has warned men to seek knowledge , as the Quran letters at – Tawbah verse 122 . Liyatafaqqahu words drawn from the word fiqh , which involves deep knowledge of things that are difficult and hidden . Not just knowledge .
The word fiqh here is not limited to what is termed in the disciplines of religion with the science of fiqh , the knowledge of the laws of Islam that is both practical and are obtained through the reasoning of the detailed arguments . But said it includes all kinds of in-depth knowledge .
The Qur’an has repeatedly explained the importance of knowledge . Without knowledge of human life would undoubtedly be miserable . Not only that , the Qur’an even human position has a high degree of knowledge on .
III. Hadith on Demand Obligations Science
عن أنس بن مالك قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم طلب العلم فريضة على كل مسلم
From Anas bin Malik , he said , “The Messenger of Allah said , ‘ Looking Illmu is obligatory for every Muslim ‘ . ” Saheeh : Takhrij Musykilah Al Faqr ( 86 ) , Takhrij Fiqh As- Sirah ( 71 ) .
Above hadith indicates that obligatory for every Muslim to seek knowledge , and those who provide for the addition to the expert knowledge is like a person who draping pigs with pearls , gems and gold . People who have religious knowledge who practice it and teach this guy like soil fertile soil that absorbs water so as to provide benefits for themselves and give the benefit of others .
IV. For the Importance of the Human Sciences
The views of scholars about the importance of science for human Imam As – Shafi’i said :
من أراد الدنيا فعليه بالعلم , ومن أراد الآخرة فعليه بالعلم
Meaning : “Whoever wants ( the good of ) the world , then he should use science , and anyone who wants the good of the hereafter , it should use the science “.
From the hadith can be seen , the science can achieve closeness to Allah , the angels of the higher class can be obtained and high social status in the heaven can be enjoyed . With the knowledge of the glory of the world , influence , followers , glamor , power and prestige can be obtained . Even animals will instinctively defer to humans because of their knowledge . This is the absolute perfection of science.
According to Al – Mawardi , the primacy and importance of science can be known by everyone . Who can not figure it out just fools . These words are clues to the primacy of science is more striking , because the primacy of science can only be known by science itself . When a person is not knowledgeable to know the virtues of science , he underestimated the science , the pemilinya despised , and thought that the only wealth of the world that will deliver to a happiness.
V. Mandatory Sciences Studied
Science is required to be mastered in Islam divided 2 ( two ) , which is an individual Fardlu ‘ ain and fardlu kifayah . In Ulumuddin Ihya , Imam Ghazali defines ain fardlu science is science that must be demanded by every servant of Allah , intelligent and baligh , without exception . Science fardli ‘ ayn is obligatory dituntu , which is associated with the faith to strengthen faith , mysticism to cleanse the liver , as well as the character and jurisprudence , to find out which ones are required and which are forbidden for a person .
Fardlu science is science that must kifayah controlled by Muslims in the required fields in the community . However , not all Muslims and Muslimat must master these areas . Society in general will be separated from sin and the burden if some Muslims have mastered the required fields in the community . Imam Ghazali divided the sciences into fardlu kifayah 2 is as follows :
A. Science Sharia
B. Science Not Sharia
Examples of Shari’a sciences is obligatory kifayah tafsir of the Qur’an , hadith study , qiraah science , and others . Examples sciences fardlu kifayah that Shari’a is not medicine , mathematics , and weaponry .
VI. History Of Science Dichotomy In Indonesia
Indonesia’s history , proving the realization of Hajj community , scholars , students and merchants to make anti- imperialism Netherlands , as reported by Clifford , the growth of anti- imperialism Dutch boarding Pupils raise students Insureaction or uprising as happened in 1820-1880 occurred at least five times Padri rebellion students such war (1821-1828) , the War Dipenogoro , Banjarmasin war , war in Aceh and Banten war and many other wars driven by the movement of students , kiayai , based scholars of Islam . This raises the suspicion of the Dutch government towards Islam .
Commonly program when it was probably just for the sake of the Netherlands as well ( to increase productivity in the colony ) . To The college started with the establishment of vocational schools . For example STOVIA ( 1902) which later turned into NIAS (1913 ) and GHS was the forerunner of the medical faculty of the UI . Then also Rechts School ( 1922 ) and Rechthoogen School ( 1924) and then fused so faculty laws UI.Juga followed several other faculties .
In the context of Indonesia , since Indonesia started familiar dichotomy of modern education system . Islamic sciences , for example , he is under the Ministry of Religious Affairs ( Department of Religion ) . While the general sciences ( secular ) is under the Ministry of Education ( Ministry of Education ) . Fuss is very influential in terms of facilities and budget . If we consider the 2006 budget , for example , it turns out the latter is relatively more fertile budget (U.S. $ 36755.9 billion ) than the first ( hanyasebesar Rp . 9720.9 billion : versus 79.1 % : 21.9 % .
When the legislation first national education namely , Law no. 4 Year 1950 ( concerning Basics Education and Teaching in Schools ) was enacted , madrasas and Islamic boarding schools as education is not at all included in the national education system , there is only the problem of religious education is taught in schools ( general ) , at this stage of madrasa not seen as part of a system of national education system , but it is an educational institution under the Ministry of Religious Affairs. According to the government this was due to the Islamic education system dominated by religious charges , which uses curriculum terstandarkan yet , have the structure are not uniform , and impose less management can be controlled by the government
In 1974 , the government issued Presidential Decree. 34 Year 1972 on the implementation of the education authority who carried out under the door , that is, by the Ministry of Education and Culture , which includes the implementation of religious education . The decision was followed by Presidential Decree No. . 15 of 1974 on the Implementation of Presidential Decree tersebut.Ternyata this decision gets tough challenge from the Islam.Alasannya that by becoming part of the national education system is madrasah will receive the same status with the school , but with this status are kongkurensi that madrasas should be managed by the Department of Education as the only department in charge of national education . They preferred to remain madrasas under the Ministry of Religious Affairs .
Modern sciences that much is based on the laws of nature ( natural laws = sunnatullah ) does not conflict with Islam. Natural law and revelation from God , then it is not possible between the two conflicting and science must be in accordance with past Islam.Islam progress caused by one of which is the advancement of science that developed at that time , then to achieve the progress that lost people Islam must re- learn and the importance of science.
VII. Solutions Dichotomy In Indonesia
Hattush recognized that in the present era of science lags behind the West . Reject the science that came from the west clearly alienate themselves from the times and not realistic , and it will increasingly make uamt Islam left behind . While western science that tends to receive the full secular feared would undermine the teachings of Islam are filled with normativity . By doing so , it is time for Muslim scholars left emulate native methods are dangerous in education reform . According to Al Faruqi , reforms toward modernization of Islamic education islamisai let modern science itself. So the task of Muslims is the same , albeit with a wide range of ancestors than do people who assimilate knowledge in their day and generate a legacy of Islamic culture and civilization . Faithful Science discipline , science , and literature , social , and natural sciences must be arranged and constructed of money , given the basis of Islam , and given a new purpose consistent with Islam .
Science is the important thing for human life. They should find everything the kind of science that can be useful for their life in the world or akhirat. There is no separation of science between religion and science when they learn about that. Both of them have to run together. So, human can achieved the happiness on world or akhirat with their science.
Danial Zainal Abidin, Al Qur’an for Life Excellence (Tips-tips Cemerlang Dari Al Qur’an), (Jakrta Selatan : PT Mizan Publika, 2007), hal. 40.
Harun Nasution, Pembaharuan Dalam Islam Sejarah Pemikiran dan Gerakan, (Jakarta: Bulan Bintang, 2003), hal. 56.
Terjemah singkat Ibnu Katsir,, bina ilmu Surabaya. H.salim bahreisy. Hal.172
Undang-undang No.4 tahun 1954 yang diberlakukan dengan Undang –Undang No.12 tahun 1954 untuk menjalankan undang-undang pendidikan dasar dan pengajaran.
http://indonesian.irib.ir/al-quran/-/asset_publisher/b9BB/content/tafsir-al-quran-surat-at-taubah-ayat-119-122. 27 feb 2014
http://mutakhorij-assunniyyah.blogspot.com/2013/03/makalah-keutamaan-menuntut-ilmu.html Be took from An-Nawawi, “Al-Majmu’ ‘ala Syarh al-Muhadzab”, Kairo: Maktabah al-Muniriyah, tt, Juz. 1 hlm. 40-41
http://mutakhorij-assunniyyah.blogspot.com/2013/03/makalah-keutamaan-menuntut-ilmu.html Be took from Al-Ghazali, Ihya’ Ulum al-Din, Beirut: Darul Ma’rifah, tt, vol. 1 hlm.13
http://mutakhorij-assunniyyah.blogspot.com/2013/03/makalah-keutamaan-menuntut-ilmu.html Be took from Al-Mawardi, “Adab al-Dun-ya wal al-Din”, Beirut: Dar Iqra’, 1985, hlm. 37